Diabetes mellitus, or sugar disease, is a disorder characterized by an imbalance in the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. This disease occurs when the pancreas completely or partially stops producing the hormone insulin or when the produced insulin is not effective in the body. This leads to a situation where the cells do not receive the necessary nutrients for survival. Diabetes can be hereditary, with a 50% chance that a person will develop the disorder. The risk increases if the person is overweight.

The disease can manifest itself through a number of symptoms and signs, including:

  • Polydipsia (increased thirst)
  • Polyuria (increased urination)
  • Polyphagia (increased appetite)
  • Loss of body mass
  • Fatigue
  • Laboratory findings (fasting blood glucose concentration above 7 mmol/l or above 11 mmol/l after a meal)

Diabetes can be classified into different types based on etiology, clinical symptoms, therapy, time of onset and speed of development of acute and chronic complications.

Hypoglycemia, which is low levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood, is defined as< 3.0 mmol/l. Clinical signs of hypoglycemia can occur even at higher levels. If left untreated, hypoglycemia can lead to permanent brain damage.

Hypoglycemia is the most common metabolic disorder and occurs when the body’s sugar metabolism is disturbed. It can be caused by:

  • Insufficient carbohydrate intake or skipping meals
  • Excessive physical activity
  • Excessive dosage of insulin or other hypoglycemic drugs
  • Exposure to extreme cold or heat
  • Alcohol consumption or chronic alcohol consumption, which can also lead to hypoglycemia

How is hypoglycemia manifested?

Symptoms and signs of hypoglycemia can vary from one patient to another. The most common symptoms of hypoglycemia include:

  • Confusion
  • Pallor and moist skin
  • Hunger
  • Normal or increased breathing rate
  • Increased pulse, normal blood pressure
  • Double vision, tingling in the limbs
  • Headache
  • Sleepiness
  • Aggressiveness or unusual behavior
  • Sweating
  • He attacks
  • Apathy, restlessness
  • To whom
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Neurological disorders

Procedure for managing hypoglycemia:

  1. Safety assessment of the scene and removal of potential hazards before providing assistance.
  2. Assess the patient using the ABCDE approach.
  3. Obtain history of symptom and sign pattern (S), document information, medical history, medical bracelets and identification cards.
  4. Measure and document blood glucose levels.
  5. If the person is conscious and cooperative and has low blood glucose, give oral glucose (fruit juice, sweet drink or chocolate) until the sugar level rises to 5 mmol/l.
  6. If the person is unconscious, agitated, or uncooperative, administer glucose intravenously (titrated to response).
  7. Check the glucose level again after 10 minutes (target value is 5 mmol/l).
  8. The change in consciousness should happen quickly.
  9. If the patient’s condition does not change, transport him to the hospital with continued care.


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