Normal delivery

Normal birth is a physiological process during which the fetus, fetal membranes and placenta are naturally expelled from the uterus, relatively quickly and without lasting consequences for the child or the mother. If there are no signs of impending labor, transport the pregnant woman to the hospital. If there are signs, prepare to give birth in the field. Signs of impending labor include contractions lasting 45-60 seconds at intervals of one to two minutes, rupture of the amniotic membrane (leaking of amniotic fluid), the mother’s feeling of a need to have a bowel movement that she cannot hold, and the visible appearance of the baby’s head.

Procedure for normal birth:

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  1. Use the ABCDE approach for pregnant women.
  2. Collect a detailed medical history of the pregnant woman.
  3. If there are no signs of impending labor, transport the pregnant woman to the hospital.
  4. If there are signs of impending birth, prepare to give birth in the field.
  5. Establish continuous monitoring of the pregnant woman (monitoring of ECG, saturation, blood pressure, pulse).
  6. Get oxygen and establish an IV line.
  7. Listen to your baby’s heartbeat.
  8. Assess the opening of the cervix.
  9. When the baby’s head starts to come out, protect the perineum with a cloth or gauze and place one hand on the baby’s head.
  10. When the baby’s head is born, advise the mother not to push and instruct her to breathe in short breaths or exhale quickly so that the baby’s head comes out slowly with each contraction.
  11. During labor, gentle pressure can be applied to the baby’s head to prevent it from coming out too quickly.
  12. Support the child’s head as it moves towards the exit.
  13. When the head turns, wipe the child’s eyes, nose and mouth and allow the head to turn.
  14. When the head turns, place your left hand on top of it and gently push it up to remove the shoulder, then push the head down to remove the other shoulder.
  15. Grab the child by placing your index fingers in the armpits and pull the child towards you.
  16. Carefully wipe and dry the child.
  17. Before the baby’s first breath, clean the mouth and nose thoroughly (it usually takes about 30 seconds for the first breath after birth).
  18. When the child begins to breathe and the umbilical cord stops pulsating, tie the umbilical cord in two places (the first knot approximately 4 cm from the child’s body using a hemostat, and the second 2-4 cm from the first knot).
  19. Check the efficiency of the knots and cut the umbilical cord.
  20. Keep the baby warm and place it on the mother’s stomach.
  21. Assess the child’s Apgar scores (after the first and fifth minutes). Allow spontaneous expulsion of the placenta; take the entire placenta to the hospital.
  22. Position the mother comfortably for transport, semi-sitting with legs extended and crossed, place a diaper or sheet between her legs for bleeding and support her bottom with a sheet.
  23. Antispasmodics can be used.
  24. Transport to hospital.
  25. Monitoring of mother and child until they arrive at the hospital.


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